Authors: M. Bolorizadeh and D.C. Joy
Affilation: University of Tennessee, United States
Pages: 267 - 270
Keywords: electron lithography, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, PMMA
To examine the practical limits and problems of low voltage operation, we have studied electron beam lithography (EBL) in the low (few keV) to ultra-low (E < 100eV) energy range, employing commonly used resists such as PMMA and compared the results to those from conventional high voltage processing. The direct writing was performed at low energies by our homemade scan generator and a Schottky field emission gun scanning electron microscope (SEM), used in cathode-lens mode for ultra-low voltage operation. The exposure characteristics and sensitivity of the system at these energies have been investigated using an advanced Monte Carlo simulation method. Our modeling of the lithographic process showed a significant increase in resolution and process latitude for thinner resists.