Authors: W. DeCoteau, K. Heckman, K. Reed, J.S. Erlichman
Affilation: St. Lawrence University, United States
Pages: 265 - 268
Keywords: nanopartciles, cerium dioxide, oxidative injury, multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis affects 300,00 people in the United States alone with 400 additional cases diagnosed each week. The first phase of the disease , is a relapse-remitting period where the patients symptoms wax and wane through time. Eventually, this pattern gives way to a chronic progressive disease in which periods of relapse decrease in frequency and the severity of disease worsens. The accumulation of free radicals associated with activation and migration of immune cells into the brain plays a crucial role in the pathogensis of MS. Here we show that intravenous administration of ceria nanoparticles decreases both the severity of the disease and its attendant motor deficits in the ‘gold-standard’ for animal models that are widely used in drug development for MS. Due to the unique redox potential of the nanoparticles, they function as regenerative antioxidants that can neutralize free radicals in a myriad of biologically relevant, redox-coupled reactions. The particles are capable of scavenging nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl but is particularly effective at reducing peroxynitrite, which is the prime contributor to damage in MS. The particles are small (1-2 nm) and based on our ICP-MS data are capable of crossing through the blood-brain barrier in animals unaffected by disease.