Nano Science and Technology Institute
Nanotech 2008 Vol. 3
Nanotech 2008 Vol. 3
Nanotechnology 2008: Microsystems, Photonics, Sensors, Fluidics, Modeling, and Simulation - Technical Proceedings of the 2008 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 3
Chapter 1: Photonics & Nanowires

Simulation and Fabrication of Large Area 3D Nanostructures

Authors:K.H.A. Bogart, I. El-kady, R.K. Grubbs, K. Rahimian, A.M. Sanchez, A.R. Ellis, M. Wiwi, F.B. McCormick, D. J.-L. Shir, J.A. Rogers
Affilation:Sandia National Laboratories, US
Pages:9 - 12
Keywords:nanostructure, nano-fabrication, photonic lattice, periodicity, soft lithography
Abstract:Three-dimensional (3D) nano-structures are vital for emerging technologies such as photonics, sensors, fuel cells, catalyst supports, and data storage. The Proximity-field nanoPatterning1 method generates complex 3D nanostructures using a single exposure and development cycle. Exposure through an elastomeric “phasemask” patterned in x, y, and z (dimensions~ exposure wavelength) generates a complex 3D light-intensity distribution due to diffraction (Abbe theory) and the Talbot effect (self-imaging) that patterns underlying photoresist in 3-dimensions. Our goals are to create full models of this process and scale fabrication to 150mm. We developed a model that predicts the phase mask required to generate a specific desired nanostructure. We have compared this inverse model with experimental 3D structures to test the validity of the simulation. We have transferred the PnP fabrication process to a class-10 commercial cleanroom and scaled-up the processed area to >2000mm2, tested photopolymer additives designed to reduce resist shrinkage, incorporated atomic layer deposition (ALD) to coat the 3D patterned resist with metals/metal-oxides improve structure robustness, and generated quasi-crystal patterned 3D nanostructures. We are investigating large-area approaches to 2-photon patterning2 of 3D structures. The successful creation of the phase mask for a particular desired device structure and the scale-up to commercially viable areas enables this method to be utilized for actual device (e.g. photonic lattices) fabrication. References 1. PNAS 101, 12728 (2004). 2. Opt. Express, 14 2300 (2006)
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