Authors: S.M. Kemper, T. Sherlock, J.D. Knoop, E. Cacao, P. Ruchhoeft, R.L. Atmar, R.C. Willson
Affilation: University of Houston, United States
Pages: 585 - 588
Keywords: retroreflector, biosensor, immunoassay
Many current bioanalytical and diagnostic methods rely on labeling the species of interest and specialized detection equipment to monitor the label. Common techniques suffer from signal loss or degradation and require the use of equipment anchored to one location. Incorporation of retroreflectors into biosensors offers a novel solution to these problems and provides a detection assay useful in clinical and defense applications. Consisting of mirrored walls, retroreflectors are designed to return light back towards the light source, and are extremely detectable. Signal capture is done using a simple light source and CCD camera, both of which are portable and robust. These properties makes retroreflectors ideal for assay applications as signal loss and decay is minimized. As detection particles for analyte assemble, light scattering by the particles causes dimming of the returned signal in comparison to reference reflectors. This work focuses on using retroreflectors for detection of Norwalk virus. Commonly referred to as the “cruise-ship virus”, Norwalk and the other noroviruses are the main causes of gastroenteritis on cruises. Capture antibodies for Norwalk virus were immobilized on gold retroreflectors and used to capture Norwalk virus-like particles (VLP). The presence of VLPs was confirmed by selective assembly of detection particles in the active retroreflector assay area.