Nano Science and Technology Institute
Nanotech 2008 Vol. 2
Nanotech 2008 Vol. 2
Nanotechnology 2008: Life Sciences, Medicine & Bio Materials - Technical Proceedings of the 2008 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 2
 
Chapter 2: Environment, Health & Toxicology
 

Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube Membranes

Authors:F. Fornasiero, H.G. Park, J.K. Holt, M. Stadermann, S. Kim, J.B. In, C.P. Grigoropoulos, A. Noy, O. Bakajin
Affilation:Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US
Pages:106 - 109
Keywords:carbon nanotube membrane, desalination, ion selectivity, Donnan theory
Abstract:Both MD simulations and experimental studies have shown that liquid and gas flow through carbon nanotubes with nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast. For applications in separation technology, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we use pressure-driven filtration experiments to study ion exclusion in silicon nitride/CNT composite membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. The pores of these membranes are sub-2-nm diameter CNTs whose entrance is decorated by negatively charged carboxylic groups. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion at low salt concentration. Our results support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.
Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube MembranesView PDF of paper
ISBN:978-1-4200-8504-4
Pages:808
Hardcopy:$159.95
 
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