Nano Science and Technology Institute
Nanotech 2007 Vol. 4
Nanotech 2007 Vol. 4
Technical Proceedings of the 2007 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show, Volume 4
Chapter 5: Cleantech: Energy and Fuels

8nm cerium oxide as a fuel additive for fuel consumption and emissions reduction

Authors:G. Wakefield and M. Gardener
Affilation:Oxonica Materials Ltd, UK
Pages:644 - 647
Keywords:cerium oxide, fuel consumption, catalysis, engine deposits
Abstract:8nm cerium oxide is surface functionalised for diesel compatibility and added to fuel at a level of 5-8ppm. Static engine tests and large scale field trials show that engine fuel consumption is reduced by 5-8% and emissions, particularly of black carbon particulates and unburnt hydrocarbons are reduced by >15%. Cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst which, as a refractory ceramic, survives the fuel burn and acts to improve engine performance in two ways. Firstly, the activation energy of cerium oxide is size related and as a consequence 8nm particles act to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature. The engine is progressively cleaned up by cerium oxide and performance improves. Secondly, the cerium oxide acts in the gas phase during the fuel burning to reduce the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall. This indicates oxidation of fuel during the burn which in turn results in a reduction of engine deposit build up and carbon based emissions.
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