NSTI Nanotech 2009

Nanoporous noble metals for storage of hydrogen and/or electrical charge

D.B. Robinson, S.J. Fares, M.D. Ong, B.W. Jacobs, M.E. Langham, K.L. Tran, R.H. Nilson
Sandia National Laboratories, US

Keywords: supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, palladium, rhodium, platinum

Abstract:

We have developed several pathways to nanoporous noble metals and alloys - gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium - with pores in the 2 to 20 nm range, demonstrated on milligram to gram scales. By studying their transport properties and applying models for optimal structure, we have been designing supercapacitors and hydrogen storage systems with these materials, creating devices with multiple length scales to maximize charging kinetics with minimal loss of capacity. Nanoporous noble metals are potentially useful in high-value applications where rapid charging and compact storage are essential. These may include space and harsh environments. Because the chemical properties of noble metals are relatively simple, they are useful as architectural testbeds, yielding design principles that are applicable to lower-cost materials with more complex redox chemistry or more complex pore structures. These include nickel, manganese, and carbon. Designs using these materials can be applied to vehicle electrification and other common uses.
 
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