Running the World on Renewables via Hydrogen and Ammonia Transmission Pipelines with Annual-scale Firming Storage
The Leighty Foundation, US
Keywords: stranded renewables, pipelines, hydrogen, ammonia, firming storage
Abstract:The world’s richest renewable energy resources – of large geographic extent and high intensity – are stranded: far from end-users with no gathering and transmission systems to deliver the energy. The energy output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds to seasons: the energy capture assets thus operate at inherently low capacity factor (CF); energy delivery to end-users is not “firm”. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, will suffer the same low CF, and represent substantial stranded capital assets, which increases the cost of delivered renewable-source energy.