2008 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show - Nanotech 2008 - 11th Annual

Partnering Events:

TechConnect Summit
Clean Technology 2008

Phage-Templated Synthesis of Inorganic Nanomaterials

A.M. Belcher
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US

Keywords:
phage-templated synthesis, inorganic nanomaterials

Abstract:
Nanowires are promising nanomaterial, with potential applications in microcircuitry and optoelectronics. However, it can be difficult to fabricate these regular structures, and the processes required are often expensive or produce toxic by-products. The monodisperse, self-assembling structure of filamentous phage provides an ideal template for the construction of nanostructures and enables syntheses to occur at room temperature in aqueous solvents. By using phage display, foreign peptides can be displayed on the phage surface as fusion proteins. The displayed peptide is chosen after evolutionary selection to bind specifically the atoms required for the function of that nanowire. For example, the carboxylic acid groups in the tetraglutamate motif can bind various metal ions by ion exchange. The fusion displayed peptides can be further reconstructed using basic genetic engineering techniques. Furthermore, by incorporating two fusion proteins – either on two separate capsid proteins or by including two fusion peptides within the same protein – more complicated nanostructures can be produced. The engineering of specific receptors at the ends of the phage enables creating assemblies with predictable structures, specific characteristics and defined properties. This concept can be exemplified by the successful use of biotemplated nanowires with lithium ion batteries: hybrid gold–cobalt oxide-based biotemplated nanowires improved battery capacity. Additionally, electronics research suggests that nanowires will contribute to the next generation of computing devices. In the biomaterials arena, a recent report proposes an application for phage display in the artificial construction of bone. In this example, inorganic components of bone are used as the target for phage display selection. The resultant peptides were found to be collagen-like, and coating these scaffolds with calcium and phosphate ions created artificial bone structures. The chapter gives a detailed description of principles, challenges and advances in the phage-templated synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials.


Nanotech 2008 Conference Program Abstract