Penn State is a leader in nanotechnology and materials research. Last fiscal year, total research expenditures reached $665 million, including almost $100 million in industry-sponsored research. More than 100 patent-protected nanotechnologies have resulted from Penn State research, and more than 1,000 companies have sponsored materials science research at the University in the past decade. Penn State has invested $75 million in nano-related facilities, equipment, and infrastructure, and more than 90 research groups work on cutting-edge science at the nanoscale. Areas of strength include molecular electronics, nanowire synthesis, nanoscale modeling and simulation, nanoparticles and complex fluids, nanomanufacturing, MEMs and NEMs, nanoscale magnetics, and nanobiotechnology.