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Enzymatically Degradable Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Bone Regeneration

E. Jabbari, X. He and A.S. Sarvestani
University of South Carolina, US

Keywords:
hydrogel, biodegradable, nanocomposite, bone

Abstract:
One approach to bone replacement involves the use of in-situ crosslinkable scaffolds for cell transplantation to promote tissue growth, nutrient diffusion, matrix production, and vascularization. Bone matrix is a composite material consisting of aqueous and inorganic phases. The aqueous component gives bone its form and contributes to its ability to resist tension, while the inorganic, or mineral, component primarily resists compression. The carbonate and acid phosphate groups of the mineral crystals play important roles in the interaction of the crystals with the surrounding extracellular fluid and with the aqueous components of the matrix. The aqueous phase of the bone matrix, even though it constitutes only 15% of the matrix, plays a central role in regulation of mineralization, modulation and control of cell migration and differentiation, maintenance of matrix integrity, and the extent of mineral-collagen interactions. We hypothesize that hydrogel/apatite nanocomposites are the ideal biomaterial to mimic the physio-chemical and biologic properties of the bone matrix and to fabricate scaffolds for bone regeneration. In this work, we describe synthesis, characterization, and fabrication of hydrogel/apatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

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