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Increased Osteoblast Adhesion on Nano-rough Anodized Titanium and CoCrMo

C. Yao, E.B. Slamovicha and T.J. Webster
Purdue University, US

Keywords:
osteoblast, cell adhesion, anodization, titanium, CoCrMo

Abstract:
Titanium and cobalt-based alloys are two main groups of metallic materials widely used in orthopedic applications. One approach to improve biological properties of current titanium and CoCrMo implant is to mimic the nanostructures of natural bone. Surface modification via anodization is popular to create such nanometer surface features on these metallic implants. The objective of the present study was to anodize titanium and CoCrMo and then determine osteoblast adhesion on such materials. Hydrofluoric acid was used as an electrolyte for anodization and different anodization conditions time were applied for each metal. Osteoblast adhesion was determined by cell counting under a fluorescence microscope. The results demonstrated the ability to make nano-tube-like structure on anodized titanium compared to smooth surface before anodization. The inner diameters of the tubes were about 60 nm and the depths were limited to a few hundred nanometers. The original CoCrMo surface had micro-scale scratches and cracks probably due to mechanical processing but was mainly smooth at the nano-scale. On the contrary, the anodized CoCrMo possessed a very rough surface in the micro-scale as well as a porous structure within the nano-scale. For both titanium and CoCrMo, the results of osteoblast adhesion tests showed significantly (p<0.01) increased osteoblast numbers on anodized compared to unanodized metals.

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