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The Nucleolus and Cellular Stress: Analysis by Coherent Phase Microscopy

V.P. Tychinsky, A.V. Kretyshev, I.V. Klemyashov, I.V. Reshetov, T.V. Vyshenskaya and A.A. Shtil
P.A.Hertsen Moscow Research Oncological Institute, RU

Keywords:
nanoscale, measurement, cells, monitoring

Abstract:
Coherent phase microscopy is a nanoscale measurement technique, an original method of monitoring the responses to cellular stress. We demonstrate that: 1) optically dense subcellular structures, including the nuclei and nucleoli, can be clearly detected by CPM in freshly isolated human tumor specimens or cultured mammalian cells, and 2) the key parameters detectable by CPM, i.e., the optical thickness Δh, the diameter and refractivity Δn, are adequate for quantitative analysis of the response of the nucleoli to pharmacological inhibitors of vital cellular processes.
CPM-based nanodiagnostics were applied successfully to detect breast cancer and thyroid cancer tumor cells. Phase thickness and diameter of nucleoli were found to be twice as greater in cancer cells as compared to normal tissue. Other characteristics that differed in normal and cancer cells were intensity and spectra of phase thickness fluctuation.
Coherent phase microscopy can be used for functional state real-time monitoring of a living cancer and healthy cells in the nanoscale range and for breast and thyroid cancer diagnostics.

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