Nanolithography and Nanoprocessing
In the fields of micro and nanolithography, major advancements in resolution have historically been achieved through use of shorter wavelengths of light. Along this path, such improvements come with an ever-increasing cost for photolithographic tools. As conventional projection lithography reaches its limits, Next Generation Lithography (NGL) tools using shorter wavelengths and higher numerical apertures may provide a means to further pattern shrinks, but are expected to have a price tag that is prohibitive for many companies. Clearly, technologies that can reduce the tool cost by an order of magnitude will have a significant effect on the economics of the fabrication process.
Imprint lithography is essentially a nanomolding process in which the topography of a template defines the patterns created on a substrate. Investigations by several researchers in the sub-50 nm regime indicate that imprint lithography resolution is only limited by the resolution of the template fabrication process. It possesses important advantages over photolithography and other NGL techniques since it does not require expensive projection optics, or advanced illumination sources that are central to photolithography and NGL technologies.
This tutorial will review the status and prospects of several NGLs, with an emphasis on imprint lithography. Beam related patterning techniques including electron beam lithography, x-ray lithography, deep ultra violet lithography, and extreme ultraviolet lithography will be explored. Imprint lithography has many variants, but can generally be broken into three sub-sections: Soft Lithography, Nanoimprint Lithography, and Step and Flash Imprint Lithography. A derivative of Nanoimprint Lithography, Step and Flash Imprint Lithography, or S-FIL, addresses the issue of alignment by using a transparent fused silica template, thereby facilitating the viewing of alignment marks on the template and wafer simultaneously. The various aspects of the S-FIL process that are necessary for a robust lithographic technology include the template, the tool, the resist, and the pattern transfer. These topics, along with actual device applications will be discussed. If time permits, additional lithographic technologies such as Dip Pen Nanolithography and Molecular Transfer Lithography (MxL) will also be discussed.
Doug Resnick received his Ph.D. in 1981 from the Ohio State University in the field of Solid State Physics. Before joining Molecular Imprints, Doug worked at Motorola Labs from 1990 till 2004. From 1981-1990, Doug worked at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Development projects included x-ray lithography, GaAs direct write and plasma etching of photomasks. Doug joined Motorola in 1990 and led the development effort for x-ray mask pattern transfer. Doug was a Section Manager in Motorola Labs, and a member of Motorola’s Scientific Advisory Board. Doug’s previous assignment was to provide lithographic and plasma-processing solutions for a diverse group of programs that are developing products in the Embedded Systems and Physical Sciences Labs. Doug was responsible for developing Motorola’s Step and Flash Imprint Lithography research program, and has authored or co-authored over 100 technical publications and holds 16 U.S. patents. He has served as the conference chair for both the EIPBN and SPIE Microlithography Symposiums.
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