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Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering by 2D Photonic Crystals: Enhancement and Reproducibility

M.C. Netti, S. Mahnkopf, J.R. Lincoln, M.D.B. Charlton, S.J. Cox, P. Ayliffe, M.E. Zoorob, J.S. Wilkinson, J.J. Baumberg, N.M.B. Perney and S.L. Jaiswal
Mesophotonics Ltd., UK

Keywords:
SERS, photonic crystals, bio-chemical sensors, Raman spectroscopy, integrated optics devices, surface plasmons

Abstract:
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is a widely utilised technique to enhance the weak Raman spectrum of molecules, enabling detection and identification of ultralow concentrations of particular species. We show both experimentally and theoretically how surface plasmons engineered on 2D photonic crystals (PCs) fabricated from metal-coated dielectrics can produce SERS enhancements >10^4. These PC SERS substrates exhibit extremely good reproducibility enabling a quantification of the adsorbed molecular concentration, and low-cost widely-applicable SERS devices. In contrast to other works on metal colloids and nanoparticles, our metallo-dielectric photonic crystals have void-like structures which are much more favourable for plasmon-enhanced electromagnetic fields. These structures combine properties of both photonic crystals and plasmons, and exhibit a rich variety of different interactions with incident light. The repeatability of the observed SERS amplitude on different samples is extremely good with relative standard deviations (RSD)

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