Microscope Slide Electrode Chamber for Nanosecond, Megavolt-Per-Meter Biological Investigations
Y. Sun, P.T. Vernier, M. Behrend, L. Marcu and M.A. Gundersen
University of Southern California, US
Keywords: SU-8, liftoff, megavolt electric field, micorchamber, electroperturbation, microelectronic fabrication, microscopy
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields pass through the external membranes of biological cells (which have typical response times much greater than nanoseconds) and perturb fast-responding intracellular structures and processes. To enable real-time imaging and investigation of these phenomena, a microchamber with integral electrode walls and optical path for observing individual cells exposed to electric pulses was designed and fabricated utilizing photolithographic and microelectronic fabrication methods. SU-8 photoresist was patterned to form straight sidewalls 10 to 30 m in height, and gold was deposited on the opposing walls and the top for a conductive, non-reactive electrode surface. Results from observations with the microchamber in real-time electroperturbation imaging experiments include intracellular calcium bursts and membrane phospholipid translocation. Real-time nanoelectropulse investigations with microfabricated imaging tools open new pathways for the study and engineering of biological systems.
Nanotech 2004 Conference Technical Program Abstract