Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-based Energy Storage Devices
Amit Singhal, Ganesh Skandan and Glenn Amatucci
Nanopowder Enterprises Inc., US
Keywords: Nanopowder, electrodes, Li-ion batteries, energy storage devices
Small rechargeable energy storage devices are being used in increasing number to power portable equipment such as, power tools, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), computers, camcorders and wireless communication devices, and hybrid electric vehicles. There is a need for rechargeable Li-ion batteries with high energy density (> 200 Wh/kg) and hybrid devices with fast rate capabilities (charge and discharge in less than 6 minutes) for a variety of applications. Cathodes and anodes composed of nanostructured materials can lead to significant enhancement in energy density and rate capabilities of energy storage devices. In many cases, utilizing nanostructured electrodes improves the overall performance of rechargeable Li-based energy storage devices. The present paper will discuss electrochemical results on a variety of fine-grained electrode materials synthesized in our laboratory, including V2O5, LixMn1-xMyO2, Li4Ti5O12, LiFePO4 and Sn-based alloys. In particular, the emphasis will be on correlating the structure with the electrochemical properties, since it has been found that the electrochemical properties are maximized when the electrode particles possess a unique combination of composition, size and morphology. Further, a variety of synthesis techniques, which have been developed to produce powders with the desired specific set of characteristics, will also be discussed.
This work has been sponsored in part by Ballistic Missiles Defense Organization, Office of Naval Research, National Aeronautics Space Administration and US Department of Energy.
NSTI Nanotech 2003 Conference Technical Program Abstract